The battle to save the Ohio

The damaged tanker OHIO, “supported by Royal Navy destroyers HMS PENN (left) and HMS LEDBURY (right)”, approaches Malta after an epic voyage across the Mediterranean as part of convoy WS21S (Operation Pedestal) to deliver fuel and other vital supplies to the besieged island. OHIO’s back was broken and her engines failed during earlier German and Italian attacks. Because of the vital importance of her cargo (10,000 tons of fuel which would enable the aircraft and submarines based at Malta to return to the offensive), she could not be abandoned. In a highly unusual manoeuvre, the two destroyers supported her to provide buoyancy and power for the remainder of the voyage.
This was the original War Office caption but, see comments below from eye witness and participant, it is actually HMS Penn and HMS Bramham supporting the Ohio.

Probably the most important ship in the Pedestal convoy was the oil tanker Ohio, an American ship with a British crew. Its cargo was essential for the continuation of the fight from Malta, every effort had to be made to get her into port. She was twice abandoned during the course of the convoy – but then re-boarded. Finally still some 40 miles from Malta, with her engine room destroyed, she had to be lashed between two destroyers and supported for the last part of the journey. Fortunately fighter cover from Malta itself meant that the air attacks were much diminished on the final day of her journey.

The damaged tanker OHIO finally enters Valletta on the morning of the 15th supported by Royal Navy destroyers, after an epic voyage across the Mediterranean as part of convoy WS21S.

Captain of the Ohio, Dudley Mason, awarded the George Cross for bringing the tanker into Malta.

Her captain, Dudley Mason was awarded the George Cross for his efforts in saving the ship:

The KING has been graciously pleased to award the GEORGE CROSS to Captain Dudley William Mason, Master, SS Ohio. During the passage to Malta of an important convoy Captain Mason’s ship suffered most violent onslaught. She was a focus of attack throughout and was torpedoed early one night. Although gravely damaged, her engines were kept going and the Master made a magnificent passage by hand-steering and without a compass.

The ship’s gunners helped to bring down one of the attacking aircraft. The vessel was hit again before morning, but though she did not sink, her engine room was wrecked. She was then towed. The unwieldy condition of the vessel and persistent enemy attacks made progress slow, and it was uncertain whether she would remain afloat.

All next day progress somehow continued and the ship reached Malta after a further night at sea. The violence of the enemy could not deter the Master from his purpose. Throughout he showed skill and courage of the highest order and it was due to his determination that, in spite of the most persistent enemy opposition, the vessel, with her valuable cargo, eventually reached Malta and was safely berthed.

Also recognised were two American sailors who were awarded the Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal – Frederick August Larsen, Jr., Junior Third Officer and Francis A. Dales, Deck Cadet-Midshipman on SS Santa Elisa/SS Ohio. They had been rescued from the SS Santa Elisa when it was sunk but volunteered to man the guns on the Ohio:

SS Santa Elisa/SS Ohio
08/11 to 08/15/42

For heroism above and beyond the call of duty.

His ship was a freighter carrying drums of high-octane gasoline, one of two American ships, in a small British convoy to Malta. Orders were to “get through at all costs.” Heavily escorted, the convoy moved into the Mediterranean, and before noon of that day the enemy’s attack began. From then on the entire convoy was under constant attack from Axis planes and submarines. Assigned the command of an anti-aircraft gun mounted on the bridge, Dales contributed to the successful defense of his ship for three days.

At 4:00 A.M. on the morning of the fourth day, torpedo boats succeeded in breaking through and two attacked from opposite sides. Sneaking in close under cover of the darkness one opened point-blank fire on Dales’s position with four .50 caliber machine guns, sweeping the bridge and killing three of his gun crew in the first bursts. The other sent its deadly torpedo into the opposite side of the freighter. Neither the heavy fire from the first torpedo boat nor the torpedo from the second drove Dales and his crew from their gun. With only flashes to fire at in the darkness, he found the target and the first boat burst into flames and sank. But the torpedo launched by the other had done its deadly work. The high-test gasoline cargo ignited and the American ship was engulfed in flames. Reluctantly, orders were given to abandon her.

Two hours later, the survivors were picked up by a British destroyer, which then proceeded to take in tow a tanker [SS Ohio] that had been bombed and could not maneuver. After five hours constant dive-bombing, the tanker was hit again–her crew abandoned her–and the destroyer was forced to cut her loose. But the cargo she carried was most important to the defense of Malta, and it had to get through. The rescue destroyer and another destroyer steamed in– lashed themselves on either side of the stricken tanker–and dragged her along in a determined attempt to get her to port.

Dales and four others volunteered to go aboard the tanker and man her guns in order to bring more fire power to their defense. The shackled ships, inching along and making a perfect target, were assailed by concentrated enemy airpower. All that day wave after wave of German and Italian bombers dived at them and were beaten off by a heavy barrage. Bombs straddled them, scoring near misses, but no direct hits were made until noon the next day, when the tanker finally received a bomb down her stack which blew out the bottom of her engine room. Though she continued to settle until her decks were awash, they fought her through until dusk that day brought them under the protection of the hard fighting air force out of Malta.

The magnificent courage of this young cadet constitutes a degree of heroism which will be an enduring inspiration to seamen of the United States Merchant Marine everywhere.

{ 30 comments… read them below or add one }

Paul de Leonardo January 12, 2017 at 9:16 pm

Hello, great heartfelt thanks to everyone’s contribution to the great story of the USS OHIO. I’m planning to write a movie about the gallant man who sailed the perilous voyage of the OHIO. i’m very interested in finding a love story connected to this great event. I would appreciate if anyone can contribute in my research in any way. Please kindly contact me at Thank you.

olivia January 25, 2016 at 3:59 pm

RSF Coaker Thank you SIR. For your service, God bless.

Karen Nicholls January 1, 2016 at 11:15 pm

My grandad John (jack) Chapman served on Hms Penn he would never talk about it. Would love to see Photo’s of Hms Penn crew (see if I can see my grandad).

Thank you.

B Baines December 9, 2015 at 4:47 am

I believe it was a Baines that made the suggestion of using two destroyers to support Ohio. Is this correct and what happened to him?.

r.s.f. coaker November 16, 2015 at 6:21 pm

I am afraid you are letting yourselves down. You have not corrected the caption under the photograph of the ohio ans attendant destroyers.


allan shaw August 7, 2015 at 5:31 pm

A book by Mike Pearson will answer many questions regarding S.S .Ohio including full crew lists half of S.S. Ohio crew were taken to Malta when M.L. developed engine trouble and survivours from Penn and Ledbury came aboard to help A. Shaw ordinary seaman S.S. Ohio 1942 now 91 years old living in Blyth Northumberland think I am the only known member of Ohio crew still alive Allan Shaw………….

Carl Richardson February 8, 2015 at 8:27 pm

My granddad and his brother where both killed on the ss Ohio . Their surname was Richardson, does anybody have any information about them? I would be very gratefully if anybody does, thank you.

Carl Richardson February 8, 2015 at 8:23 pm

War world 2 tanker as Ohio I lost my grandfather And his brother does anybody have any more information there surname was Richardson

Peter Burton January 11, 2015 at 3:20 am

I have just see a documentary on operation pedestal to get supplies to Malta durung ww11 so it could carry on protecting itself from germany and ilaly it was broadcast on the Yesterday channel .I watched witha good friend of min Reg Swan who was on the American Tanker SS Ohio which had all the supplies on it was blown up with torpedoes and bombs and three times it had to be evacuated and it limped into Valetta Harbour against all the odds it looked bad near Malta when all the finest Italian Navy Detroyers where sent to finish it off but news was sent falsely that a lot of british raf planes where on there way to finish the Italian Navy off so they all retreated then German planes were sent to finish all the British ships off but they were taken on by Maltas Raf and the guns of the British Fleet still strugling to reach Valetta Harbour.Eventually The Ss Ohio limped into Valletta Harbour between two British Destroyers to the cheers of the people of Malta including my neighbour Mary Stuart who was a teenager at the time .All this story Iam getting filmed by Estuary Tv Which is local to Grimsby where both Reg Swan and Mary Stuart now live and I have just put them in touch with each other as they didnt know each other .

nick hartshorn November 9, 2014 at 5:43 pm

my father Brian Hartshorn was on the malta convoy. merchant seaman 3rd engineer. played bugle and played the last post for the dead

Laurienne Gwilliam October 30, 2014 at 4:15 pm

My grandfather Gunner Peter Brown was tragically killed on “The Ohio” on 13th.August 1942 and was buried at sea shortly before the Convoy reached Malta.
Does anyone remember him?
He was a widower and my mother was never able to come to terms with his death.
I will be travelling to Malta for the first time in 2015 and would be interested to visit the sites closely linked to the events of that time. I would be grateful for any information or advice.

Thank you

Ann Marmion October 11, 2014 at 9:23 pm

My husband’s father, was a crew member on The Ohio, he worked in the engine room, as a fireman, he was only 19yr’s old. I cant imagine what these men went through. I never got to meet him, I know he must have been so proud when The Ohio reached Malta. God Bless all those brave men.

Eric Clarke August 30, 2014 at 9:07 pm

Interesting report from the Captain of HMS Ledbury confirming what Mr Coaker said that HMS Bramham was the vessel on the port side of The Ohio.

allan. shaw August 26, 2014 at 9:26 pm

Ray Morton assistant steward lives in Brisbane Australia he said he was blown overboard when Ohio was torpedoed he was picked up by the R.N. and taken back to Gibralter the only known surviving crew member who sailed into Malta is Myself ALLAN SHAW ordinary seaman from Wetherby W. Yorkshire …..log onto Allan Shaw Malta for some bits of info,,, I now live in Bltyh n.e 244qr

Lawrence West August 18, 2014 at 10:34 am

My dad (sadly passed away on this day in 2007) was a Private in 2 Dorsets. He was then known as Henry Frederick Wood. He did not talk much about the war but did tell me how bad it was during the bombing. It was so bad it made him deaf and he never did fully regain his hearing. He said that when the Ohio came in to Grand Harbour he had never seen so many people on the quayside. If Operation Pedestal had failed then Malta would have fallen and this would have meant either we would have lost the war or it would have been prolonged. As far as he was concerned this was the turning point of the war. My dad talked fondly of the Maltese and had always hoped to go back but never did due to ill health. He did however, manage to go to the High Commissioners office in 1995 to receive the commemorative medal from the High Commissioner – this was the only time I ever saw him wear his WW2 decorations. He watched “The Malta Story” a number of times and it brings a lump to my throat when the admiral gives the order “Sound The Alert”. Well done to all the very brave soldiers, sailors, airmen and of course the Maltese people. Well done Malta GC.

c bromley August 6, 2014 at 11:02 pm

My father (Bill Bromley) was the master of the tug boat “Ancient” and he can be seen alongside the Ohio as it was brought into harbour. He was stationed in Malta for a couple of years during the worst period.

vicki henry July 19, 2014 at 8:45 pm

My lovely Father was Reginald Labern and I would love to hear from anyone who knew him.

Sally Middleton July 17, 2014 at 12:37 am

I only recently learned, after a family holiday on Malta, that my Grand father, James Darnell, was a member of the crew of the SS Ohio. He sadly died, 41 years ago today in fact, and I would really love to learn more about his role. I have searched for crew lists unsuccessfully and wondered if anyone could direct me to these, if in fact they exist.

Mrs M Rayner June 30, 2014 at 12:11 pm

My brother John Hartin served on the Ohio on the ill fated convoy to Malta. He would never speak of his experience and it is only in reading of the account later that we realise what he and so many others went through. I would love to hear from anyone who remembers him.

Tim MacMahon June 23, 2014 at 1:44 am

I visted Malta ten years ago, and was overwhelmed by the friendliness of the Maltese towards my wife and I as British tourists. I had heard the ‘Faith Hope and Charity’ stories from my father who was invalided out but whose brother had served, but had never heard of Pedestal. Having now watched a television documentary of the convoy, and, having had the honour of becomming friends with an crewman aboard ship on the more famous and equally ill fated convoy, PQ17 (Bill Phillips), I can now understand why he said to me, years ago, “we had ice and Doenitz to contend with, they had Doenitz, the whole Eyetie navy, Stuckas, 88’s, Maachis and our own bloody mines to deal with”.
Yet again, I feel humbled to be part of a generation that have not had to go to war, largely due to the sacrifices of those magnificent men (and their like) who crewed those vessels that flew both the red and white ensign. I would be interested to know, however, if any of the vessels which took part in pedestal, went on to see other action. Penn and Ledbury both look pretty shot up in the official picture (if that caption is correct). Does anybody know if the Wellingtons actually took out any of the persuing axis vessels. I ask this only as I find it amazing that El Douche (if what I heard was correct) turned the Italian fleet around purely by way of deception by Malta based RAF. If so, that must rank up there with Sandy Woodward and the Belgrano as a tactical tour de force.

RICHARD HATTON June 18, 2014 at 10:05 pm

Can anyone confirm HMS SPEEDY was involved in the towing oh USS OHIO into Grand Harbour.

Editor June 10, 2014 at 8:20 pm

Mr Coaker

Very happy to add those details. Not the first time that the original War Office picture caption has proved to be wrong.

Would be very pleased to add any other recollections you may have of the episode.


r.s.f coaker June 10, 2014 at 6:43 pm

I am afraid that like wikipedia you are quite wrong when you say that h.m.s.ledbury was on the port side of Ohio The ship on the port side assisting H.M.S Penn was H.M.S.Bramham and furthermore it was the captain of Bramham, Lieutenant E.B.Baines who suggested the method of towing Ohio into Malta.


May I request that you correct this. I have tried to get Wikipedia to correct their website but they haven’t done so.

Thank you.

Jen Eldred April 20, 2014 at 8:12 am

My father was stationed on Malta during the bombardment. He was there when the Ohio finally came into the Grand Harbour. Volunteers from the services (Dad was in 2nd Devonshires) were asked to help unload the precious cargo.. There were still dead on the deck. Dad received a medal/medallion for this service with an etching ot the Ohio on the back. My sister and I have presented this to his regimental museum along with the remainder of his medals in Dorchester. We never knew if Malta presented this award or the Americans as this was an American Ship. It was not presented by the British as we have his military record. Any information would be appreciated

judith oakman January 6, 2014 at 8:16 pm

My father Charles Dundas was an engineer on the Ohio and had to abandon ship twice. He was given a fantastic welcome into Malta and spent some time in the hospital there. He is still alive at the age of 92 and rarely talks about his WW2 experiences of which there were many.

Carol Linton November 14, 2013 at 3:00 pm

My father was on the Dorset that was sunk, and volunteered to go onto the Ohio as a rear gunner.

Marilyn & Colin Watkins August 11, 2013 at 7:05 pm

The most moving of war stories. Bravery unimaginable by the crew and people of Malta. We cannot imagine being that courageous. God Bless them all.

Dave Murphy February 5, 2013 at 10:51 am

My father served in the Royal Navy during WW11 and was there when the Ohio limped into Grand Harbour, Valletta. He described the scene to me when I was a young boy, he witnessed the heart thumping spectacle of seasoned, older seadogs with tears streaming down their faces as they witnessed the courage and tenacity of this fine ship and her magnificent crew.
The Ohio finaly settled on the bottom but only after having given up her precious cargo and later became a barracks.
My Dad also kept my brothers and I spellbound with stories about Faith, Hope and Charity and the story of the bomb which came crashing through the dome of a packed church, skidded up the isle and lodged in the church doors without exploding and throughout all of this not a soul in the entire congregation came to any harm.
Many years later I found this church and read the account just as my Dad had related it to me, is it any wonder this valliant little island was awarded The George Cross.

tony Sanders November 19, 2012 at 9:09 pm

MY father Joe Sanders served on the Penn, known as Sandy.
I have anumber of photos of crew mates and of battle scenes if anyone is interested. It would be good to hear of any living crew mates or family.

Nan Moore November 17, 2012 at 2:46 pm

I have a 42-43 Malta Convoy Cross that looks to be hand-made that my grandfather received when he was in the Merchant Marine during WWII. I would like to learn more about it and have a photo of it if anyone can be of assistance.

Thank you.

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