In the Warsaw ghetto Chaim Kaplan had been keeping a diary of the effects of the war on the Poles and the ever growing persecution of the Jews. He recorded the first anniversary of the outbreak of the war:
In this year of torments, Polish Jewry has been destroyed. Its property and holdings were confiscated; all sources of income were blocked; its ancient communities were uprooted and exiled; its cemeteries are piles of rubble; its human rights have been erased and annulled; its lives are worthless. Imprisoned, subjugated, and mummified in the narrow confines of ghettos, it is declining to the lowest level of human survival.
This is an existence of dogs who lick bones under their masters’ feet. Spiritual life is paralysed. All the libraries, academies, and other buildings which were a haven for the Jewish spirit have been destroyed, and still the enemy is poised to torment us until we disappear from the earth entirely.
This is not only in our own conquered country where we have been openly enslaved by the Nazis; the venom of Nazism is poisoning all the communities where the murderers have power. Depraved Rumania, wicked Hungary, audacious and filthy Czechoslovakia—wherever the influence of Nazism reaches, we decline from day to day.
‘You Jews wanted a war—well, here is a war; but you will come out of it beaten!’
All of this in a single year. We were mistaken in assessing the murderers’ strength, and were again mistaken in assessing our democratic strength. And all the small and great nations who have become working tributaries to Nazism were mistaken along with us. Together with the Jewish people, Poland too is turned into a cemetery.