Massacre of civilians at Kondomari, Crete

Trebes gives the orders to the parachutists in the firing squad at Kondomari

The civilian population of Crete had joined in the defence of their island alongside Greek and British armed forces. There are many accounts of them killing parachutists, some as they were still hanging in their parachutes as they landed. Some might regard this as a matter of self defence but the Germans interpreted it as “partisan” activity because they were not wearing uniform, and in their eyes outside the rules of warfare. There were also rumours that bodies had been mutilated or that even some parachutists had been tortured – although a much more likely explanation that bodies – necessarily left on the landing grounds – very rapidly decomposed in the heat.

As a result Hermann Goering, in charge of the Luftwaffe, and airborne forces, ordered reprisal measures. Shooting groups of civilian ‘hostages’ as reprisals for any action against the occupying forces was a very common practice – especially in Poland and on the eastern front. This was a rare instance in which there remains fairly comprehensive photographic and written evidence of the circumstances. German war correspondent Peter Weixler took a series of images and later made a statement to the Allies for the trial of Goering after the war:

The punitive expedition consisted of Trebes, another lieutenant, an interpreter, two sergeants and about twenty five parachutists of the Second Battalion. As a photographer assigned to my division I was permitted to accompany this commando. Near the village of Malemes, we stopped and Trebes showed us the corpses of several soldiers, obviously in the process of decay. He incited the men against the civilian population. We continued our drive to the village of Kondomari.

The men got off, and ran into the few houses of the little community. They got all men, women, and children onto the little square. A German soldier brought out the coat of a parachutist which he had picked up in one of the houses. and which had a bullet hole in the back. Trebes had the house burned down immediately.

One man admitted having killed a German soldier, but it was not possible to convict any of the others of any crimes or plundering, and I therefore asked Trebes to stop the contemplated actionand give us orders to return, taking with ua only the one man. Trebes however gave orders to separate the men from the women and children; then he had the interpreter tell the women that all of the men would be shot because of having murdered German soldiers, and that the corpses would have to be interred within two hours.

When Trebes turned his back for a few moments, I made it possible for nine men to get away. Trebes had the men form a half circle, gave the order to fire, and after about fifteen seconds, everything was over.

I asked Trebes, who was quite pale, whether he realized what he had done, and he replied that he had only executed the order of Hermann Goering, and avenged his dead comrades. A few days later he received the Knights Cross from Goering for his “braveness” in Crete.

See the original document at Fallschirmjager.net.

The inhabitants of the village of Kondomari were gathered together in the square.

A German uniform jacket is examined for bullet holes.

The men of the village are separated from their families.

The older men and the remainder of the villagers are sent away.

The men sit waiting their fate - presumably from this picture they had not been told they were about to be executed.

The men are lined up in an olive grove - some appear to realise what is happening.

As the firing squad opens fire some men appear to be attempting to run away.

The firing squad moments after the shooting

The bodies of the men left in the field - the villagers had been instructed to bury them within two hours.

The following day an even worse massacre was conducted in the village of Kandanos, where 180 civilians were killed, possibly by a squad also led by Horst Trebes. The village was razed to the ground. No photographs survive.

The full sequence of 41 images is at Wikipedia Commons.

{ 1 comment… read it below or add one }

Michael Foley April 20, 2014 at 8:40 pm

Do you know whether Trebes ever faced justice for this atrocity?

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