British ‘take the bombing in good heart’

At the beginning of the war Air Raid Wardens were often seen as unnecessarily officious and interfering. Attitudes changed as the bombing became more intense and there were eventually nearly 1.4 million voluntary unpaid wardens.

On the 5th September Churchill had addressed the House of Commons on the war situation. The following day the Ministry of Information had collated the response to the speech and attitudes to air raids generally, in its daily public attitude survey:

The public continue to take the bombing in good heart. In London last night’s alarm was talked of jokingly for the most part, and fewer people complain of tiredness today; more are sleeping through the night alarms.

There is general satisfaction at the Prime Minister’s announcement that something is to be done about the sirens, and the details are awaited eagerly.

An increasingly fatalistic attitude towards the effect of bombing is reported, and this appears to be coupled with a high state of morale. In the East End the searchlights rather than the sirens are now taken as a sign for going to the shelters. Cooperation and friendliness in public shelters are reported to be increasing, but there are many complaints about ‘insanitary messes’ in shelters, and improper behaviour of various varieties is causing distress among the more respectable elements of the community.

There was more detail in the London regional report:

LONDON

The Prime Minister’s speech was welcomed. The siren policy is still a controversial subject; most Londoners seem to approve the idea of a preliminary ‘stand-by’ siren with a further warning to indicate immediate danger. However there is a small school of thought who wish for no sirens.

The problem of night sleeping in shelters is the greatest concern of observers, particularly in the poor and crowded districts. Sanitary arrangements in many cases are inadequate: the atmosphere becomes very foul: there are increasing numbers of cases of colds and septic throats especially among children and it is feared that there may be epidemics. In several districts cases of blatant immorality in shelters are reported; this upsets other occupants of shelters and will deter them from using the shelters again.

See TNA INF 1/264

In the summer of 1940 the first Polish squadrons were formed in Fighter Command. No. 303 'City of Warsaw' Squadron was the top-scoring RAF unit in September 1940, with nine of its pilots claiming five or more kills. Pilot Officers Jan Zumbach (left) and Mirosław Ferić, two of its aces, playing with the Squadron's mascot - a puppy dog. RAF Leconfield, 24 October 1940.

In the summer of 1940 the first Polish squadrons were formed in Fighter Command. No. 303 ‘City of Warsaw’ Squadron was the top-scoring RAF unit in September 1940, with nine of its pilots claiming five or more kills. Pilot Officers Jan Zumbach (left) and Mirosław Ferić, two of its aces, playing with the Squadron’s mascot – a puppy dog. RAF Leconfield, 24 October 1940.

Meanwhile the daily battles over the south east of England continued unabated. 303 (Polish) Squadron’s Diary for the day is just one example of the activity of RAF Fighter Command, albeit by a group of men particularly motivated by their hatred of the Germans:

Nine Hurricanes left Northolt at 08.40 hours [on 6 September 1940]. Four Hurricanes landed Northolt 08.35 [sic] — 09.50 hours. After various patrol orders the [303 Polish] Squadron was over western Kent and saw very large formations of enemy aircraft moving up from the coast to the east of them and above.

Their lack of height forced them to attack climbing and at only 140 mph. This contributed largely to our heavy casualties.

S/Ldr Kellett destroyed one Do 215 and force-landed at Biggin Hill slightly wounded.

F/O Urbanowicz reports:

‘I was Yellow 2 with S/Ldr Krasnodebski; the second section. I saw a raid a mile away travelling westward – about 40 Dorniers. Red Section went in to attack. I saw Me 109s and Hurricanes flying across from left to right on each other’s tails. One Me 109 then attacked me from starboard. we had a short dogfight. I fired 3 or 4 seconds at 200 yards. The engine caught fire and E/A fell vertically to earth.

I lost my section and orbited. I saw bombs dropping in one place and Me109s circling round that place and much AA fire. I circled there and attacked a bomber; One Me 109 was in the way and two more attacked me. I had to dogfight with the three Me’s. I had no chance to fire. I escaped over some balloons by the sea, and the Me’s climbed up. I heard “All Apany Pancake” calling the squadron in to land and I came home.’

F/Lt Forbes shot down one Me 109 and damaged another. He was forced down by petrol pouring into the cockpit. He tried to land but overshot the field and was slightly wounded by splinters. The aircraft was damaged by shellfire and the landing and was Cat 3. [i.e. destroyed]

F/O Feric destroyed one Me 109 and probably another

Sgt Frantiszek shot down one Me 109 and his aircraft was hit in the tail by a shell. He landed at Northolt and his aircraft has been repaired here;

S/Ldr Krasnodebski’s aircraft a/c was hit by a shell before he had engaged the enemy and immediately caught fire. He was taken to Farnborough Hospital suffering from burns and shock.

Sgt Karubin claims to have shot down one He 111. He crashed near Pembury, shot down by a Me109, and was admitted to Pembury Hospital, slightly injured. H o Y.]

Summary: Enemy casualties — 1 Do 215, 5 Me 109s and 1 He 111 destroyed. 2 Me 109s probable. Own casualties — 5 Hurricanes Cat 3, 1 Hurricane Cat 2. [i.e. badly“ I damaged], Two pilots wounded and two pilots slightly wounded.

A group of pilots of No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron RAF standing by the tail elevator of one of their Hawker Hurricane Mark Is at RAF Leconfield, 24 October 1940. Left to right: Pilot Officer Mirosław Ferić, Flying Officer Bogdan Grzeszczak, Pilot Officer Jan Zumbach, Flying Officer Zdzisław Henneberg and Flight Lieutenant John A. Kent, a Canadian who commanded 'A' Flight of the Squadron at this time.

A group of pilots of No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron RAF standing by the tail elevator of one of their Hawker Hurricane Mark Is at RAF Leconfield, 24 October 1940. Left to right: Pilot Officer Mirosław Ferić, Flying Officer Bogdan Grzeszczak, Pilot Officer Jan Zumbach, Flying Officer Zdzisław Henneberg and Flight Lieutenant John A. Kent, a Canadian who commanded ‘A’ Flight of the Squadron at this time.

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