Neville Chamberlain died from cancer on 9th November 1940, only six months after he had resigned as Prime Minister. Although far more interested in domestic policy and social reform, his period as Prime Minister was dominated by the rising threat of Nazi Germany, and eventually the outbreak of war. He believed that when he signed the Munich agreement in September 1938 he had come to an agreement with Hitler that would ensure peace. At the time only a minority in the House of Commons and in Britain at large took the opposite view:
Winston Churchill told the Commons,
England has been offered a choice between war and shame. She has chosen shame, and will get war.
But when Chamberlain died Churchill was magnanimous – he paid tribute to him in the House of Commons on 12th November 1940:
It fell to Neville Chamberlain in one of the supreme crises of the world to be contradicted by events, to be disappointed in his hopes, and to be deceived and cheated by a wicked man. But what were these hopes in which he was disappointed? What were these wishes in which he was frustrated? What was that faith that was abused?
They were surely among the most noble and benevolent instincts of the human heart-the love of peace, the toil for peace, the strife for peace, the pursuit of peace, even at great peril, and certainly to the utter disdain of popularity or clamour.
Whatever else history may or may not say about these terrible, tremendous years, we can be sure that Neville Chamberlain acted with perfect sincerity according to his lights and strove to the utmost of his capacity and authority, which were powerful, to save the world from the awful, devastating struggle in which we are now engaged. This alone will stand him in good stead as far as what is called the verdict of history is concerned.