Churchill warns of the ‘criminal adventurers of Berlin’

Winston Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty when he made a Radio broadcast on Sunday 20th January 1940. He was clearly not going to be constrained to speak only of naval matters. After his assertion that in the war at sea ‘things are not going so badly after all’ he moved on to examine the position of the neutral countries. The speech was well received by the British public and was further confirmation that Churchill was the backbone of the Cabinet. It was less well received by the neutral countries and by the Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax. Yet everything that he predicted was to come true, even his belief in a more united Europe after ultimate victory.

I have always, after long and hard experience, spoken with the utmost restraint and caution about the war at sea, and I am sure that many losses and misfortunes are lying ahead of us there; but in all humility and self questioning I feel able to declare that at the Admiralty, as at the French Ministry of Marine, things are not going so badly after all. Indeed, they have never gone so well in any naval war. …

Very different is the lot of the unfortunate neutrals. Whether on sea or on land they are the victims upon whom Hitler’s hate and spite descend. Look at the group of small but ancient and historic States which lie in the North. Or look again at that other group of anxious people in the Balkans or in the Danube Basin, behind whom stands the resolute Turk. Every one of them is wondering who will be the next victim on whom the criminal adventurers of Berlin will cast their rending stroke. A German major makes a forced landing in Belgium with plans for the invasion of that country whose neutrality Germany has so recently sworn to respect. …

But what would happen if all those neutral nations I have mentioned, and some others I have not mentioned, were with one spontaneous impulse to do their duty in accordance with the Covenants of the League and stand together with the British and French Empires against aggression and wrong? At present their plight is lamentable, and will become much worse. They bow humbly and in fear to German threats of violence, comforting themselves meanwhile with the thought that Britain and France will win, that they will strictly observe all the laws and conventions, and that breaches are only to be expected from the German side.

Each one hopes that if he feeds the crocodile enough the crocodile will eat him last. All of them hope that the storm will pass before their turn comes to be devoured. But the storm will not pass. It will rage and roar ever more loudly, ever more widely. It will spread to the South. It will spread to the North. There is no chance of a speedy end except through united action. And if at any time Britain and France, wearying of the struggle, were to make a shameful peace nothing would remain for the smaller States of Europe, with their shipping and their possessions, but to be divided between the opposite, though similar, barbarisms of Nazidom and Bolshevism. …

In the bitter and increasingly exacting conflict which lies before us we are resolved to keep nothing back and not to be outstripped by any in service to the common cause. Let the great cities of Warsaw, of Prague, of Vienna banish despair even in the midst of their agony. Their liberation is sure. The day will come when the joy-bells will ring again throughout Europe, and when victorious nations, masters not only of their foes, but of themselves, will plan and build in justice, in tradition, and in freedom a house of many mansions where there shall be room for all.

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