Hitler vents his frustration on Major Engel

Major Gerhard Engel was Hitlers Army Adjutant. He gives us an idea of Hitler’s state of mind on the brink of war:

F. is as never before on edge, irritable, sharp with everybody. Thus Schmundt and I had to receive a heap of abuse against the Army after it had been all quiet on that front for some time. F. emphasised that he now knew how the General Staff were thinking. Certain things had come to his knowledge about which he preferred not to speak at present. One thing was clear: he would not allow the military to give him counsel on whether there should be peace or war. He was simply unable to understand those German soldiers who feared battle. Frederick the Great would turn in his grave if he saw today’s generals. All he wanted was an end to unjust behaviour by the Poles vis-a-vis the German state. He did not want war at all with the others. If they were stupid enough to get involved, the blood would be on their hands, and they would have to be destroyed.”

See At the Heart of the Reich: The Secret Diary of Hitler’s Army Adjutant,
also available from Amazon.com and Amazon.ca

Germany and Italy sign the "Pact of Steel"

The German Reich and Italy committed themselves to military cooperation and mutual support in case of war in the ‘Pact of Steel’. The photo shows Hitler handing the treaty to the Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano (front left) in the new Reich Chancellery in Berlin. Hermann Göring can be seen next to Hitler on the right.

Count Ciano was to record in his diary that Ribbentrop, the German Foreign Minister, saw the treaty as a means to secure ‘a long period of peace of at least three years’.

He also recorded his impressions of Hitler and the latest gossip …

I thought Hitler was in excellent shape, quite serene, less aggressive. A little older. His eyes are more deeply wrinkled. He sleeps very little. Always less. And he spends most of the night surrounded by collaborators and friends. Frau Goebbels, who is a regular participant in these gatherings and who feels quite honored by them, was describing them to me without being able to conceal a vague feeling of boredom because of their monotony. It is always Hitler who talks! He can be Fuhrer as much as he likes, but he always repeats himself and bores his guests. For the first time I hear hints, within the inner circles, of the Fuhrer’s tender feelings for a beautiful girl.
She is twenty years old with beautiful quiet eyes, regular features, and a magnificent body. Her name is Sigrid von Lappers. They see each other frequently and intimately.

And he notes that Goering has ‘tears in his eyes’ when he see that Ribbentrop has around his neck the ‘Collar of the Annunziata’, a diplomatic honour awarded by the Italians.

See The Ciano Diaries 1939-1943: The Complete, Unabridged Diaries of Count Galeazzo Ciano, Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1936-1943

Hitler’s Birthday Parade

SS troops march through Berlin in a parade to celebrate Hitler's birthday, April 1939

As some biographers have commented, the passing of 50 years was just one more factor influencing Hitler to go to war. He felt he was running out of time. He had always been a chronic hypochondriac and now, with this milestone birthday, he had been reminded that he was beginning to age.

‘I’m now 50 years old,’ he told his entourage in August, ‘still in full possession of my strength. The problems must be solved by me, and I can wait no longer. In a few years I will be physically and perhaps mentally no longer up to it.’

Hitler prepares to move against Czechoslovakia

Adolf Hitler, 1938
A 1938 portrait of Adolf Hitler

It is my unalterable decision to smash Czechoslovakia by military action in the near future. It is the business of the political leadership to await or bring about the suitable moment from a political and military point of view.

An unavoidable development of events within Czechoslovakia, or other political events in Europe providing a suddenly favourable opportunity which may never recur, may cause me to take early action.

The proper choice and determined exploitation of a favourable moment is the surest guarantee of success. To this end preparations are to be made immediately.

See the full document.