Categories 1942

Horror of the ‘liquidation’ of the Rovno ghetto

Executions of Kiev Jews by German army mobile killing units (Einsatzgruppen) near Ivangorod Ukraine. The photo was mailed from the Eastern Front to Germany and intercepted at a Warsaw post office by a member of the Polish resistance collecting documentation on Nazi war crimes. The original print was owned by Tadeusz Mazur and Jerzy Tomaszewski and now resides in Historical Archives in Warsaw. The original German inscription on the back of the photograph reads, “Ukraine 1942, Jewish Action [operation], Ivangorod.”

The majority of the Jews of western Ukraine town of Rovno, around 23,000 people, had been murdered shortly after the Germans invaded in June 1941. Between 5,000 and 7,000 Jews remained in the ghetto that was established there.

Hermann Graebe was the local representative of the construction firm of Josef Jung which employed around 100 Jewish workers who lived in the Rovno ghetto. When his local Polish manager heard that ‘a pogrom’ against the remaining Jews in the ghetto was rumoured, Graebe took the matter up with the local SS commander, Dr. Puetz. He was told the rumour was a ‘clumsy lie’ – because the Jews were still needed as a labour force. He then approached the Area Commissioner’s office – the German government of the occupied Ukraine – about the status of his workers:

He then told me – making me promise to keep it a secret that a pogrom would in fact take place on the evening of Monday, 13 July 1942. After lengthy negotiation I managed to persuade him to give me permission to take my Jewish workers to Sdolbunov – but only after the pogrom had been carried out.

During the night it would be up to me to protect the house in the ghetto against the entry of Ukrainian militia and SS. As confirmation of the discussion he gave me a document, which stated that the Jewish employees of the Jung firm were not affected by the pogrom.

On the evening of this day I drove to Rovno and posted myself with Fritz Einsporn in front of the houses in the Bahnhofstrasse

in which the Jewish workers of my firm slept. Shortly after 2200 hours the ghetto was encircled by a large SS detachment and about three times as many members of the Ukrainian militia. Then the electric arc lights which had been erected in and around the ghetto were switched on.

SS and militia squads of 4 to 6 men entered or at least tried to enter the houses. Where the doors and windows were closed and the inhabitants did not open at the knocking, the SS-men and militia broke the windows, forced the doors with beams and crowbars and entered the houses. The people living there were driven on to the street just as they were, regardless of whether they were dressed or in bed.

Since the Jews in most cases refused to leave their houses and resisted, the SS and militia applied force. They finally succeeded, with strokes of the whip, kicks, and blows with rifle butts in clearing the houses. The people were driven out of their houses in such haste that small children in bed had been left behind in several instances.

In the street women cried out for their children and children for their parents. That did not prevent the SS from driving the people along the road, at running pace, and hitting them, until they reached a waiting freight train. Car after car was filled, and the screaming of women and children and the cracking of whips and rifle shots resounded unceasingly.

Since several families or groups had barricaded themselves in especially strong buildings, and the doors could not be forced with crowbars or beams, these houses were now blown open with hand grenades. Since the ghetto was near the railroad tracks in Rovno, the younger people tried to get across the tracks and over a small river to get away from the ghetto area. As this stretch of country was beyond the range of the electric lights, it was illuminated by signal rockets.

All through the night these beaten, hounded, and wounded people moved along the lighted streets. Women carried their dead children in their arms, children pulled and dragged their dead parents by their arms and legs down the road toward the train. Again and again the cries “Open the door! Open the door” echoed through the ghetto.

About 6 o’clock in the morning I went away for a moment, leaving behind Einsporn and several other German workers who had returned in the meantime. I thought the greatest danger was past and that I could risk it. Shortly after I left, Ukrainian militia men forced their way into 5 Bahnhofstrasse and brought 7 Jews out and took them to a collecting point inside the ghetto.

On my return I was able to prevent further Jews from being taken out.

I went to the collecting point to save these 7 men. I saw dozens of corpses of all ages and both sexes in the streets I had to walk along. The doors of the houses stood open, windows were smashed. Pieces of clothing, shoes, stockings, jackets, caps, hats, coats, etc., were lying in 

the street. At the corner of a house lay a baby, less than a year old with his skull crushed. Blood and brains were spattered over the house wall and covered the area immediately around the child. The child was dressed only in a little skirt.

The commander, SS Major Puetz, was walking up and down a row of about 80-100 male Jews who were crouching on the ground. He had a heavy dog whip in his hand. I walked up to him, showed him the written permit of Stabsleiter Beck and demanded the seven men whom I recognized among these who were crouching on the ground.

Dr. Puetz was very furious about Beck’s concession and nothing could persuade him to release the seven men. He made a motion with his hand encircling the square and said that anyone who was once here would not get out. Although he was very angry with Beck, he ordered me to take the people from 5 Bahnhofstrasae out of Rovno by 8 o’clock at the latest.

When I left Dr. Puetz, I noticed a Ukrainian farm cart, with two horses. Dead people with stiff limbs were lying on the cart. Legs and arms projected over the side boards. The cart was making for the freight train.

I took the remaining 74 Jews who had been locked in the house to Sdolbunov.

From the evidence of Hermann Graebe given during “The Einsatzgruppen Case”, The United States of America against Otto Ohlendorf and others, held at the Military Tribunal in Nuremburg in 1947.

8 thoughts on “Horror of the ‘liquidation’ of the Rovno ghetto”

  1. Thanks for reading,
    Our main aim is to prevent another HOLOCAUST of happening again,
    Today some people claim that the HOLOCAUST never happened, that it is exaggeration,
    We prove that it did since we see the YAD VASHEM lists and from this lists we can deduce the destiny of our family,
    Jewish Holocaust Never Ends
    My father’s family name is Winik. He was born on May 2, 1919. His parents’ house was at 48 Obwodowa street in RIVNE. The address is marked in red on the accurate map from the website http://www.shtetl.org.pl. My father passed away nearly two years ago in Kiryat Haiym in Israel.
    About a year ago we found the names of his parents (my grandpa and grandma) and my father’s little sister on the list of Jews of RIVNE ghetto in Yad Vashem. This proves that they perished on 13 July 1942 ,at night, when the RIVNE ghetto was liquidated by the Nazis. All 5355 Jews were shoved into cattle carriages to Kostopil and shot!
    Going over the list of Jews in the RIVNE ghetto in the father’s room we found:
    • Risia Winik
    • Baruch Winik
    • Ruchale Winik (15 years old)
    • Miriam Reich
    • Eli Reich
    • Moses Reich (10 years old)
    • Deborah Whitman
    • Feiga Whitman (1 year old girl)
    7 people and a 1 year old baby in a single room!
    The other members of my Father’s family, Yossi and Hasia, were most probably no longer alive. A photo of the RIVNE market indicates that the house had been bombed and they were already dead in the early days of the war. According to a witness from RIVNE, the Nazi bombing was very devastating. Shrapnels made holes of a size of a fist! The whole center of RIVNE was ruined. Another witness from RIVNE also points out the Nazi bombing devastation.
    My Father was the only survivor from his family of 6 only because he was drafted to the Red Army after the Ribbentrop-Molotov partition of Poland in 1939.
    After WW2 had ended, in 1957, since my Father was a Polish citizen, we emigrated from Tashkent in the USSR to Łódź in Poland and in 1960 we made aliyah to Kiryat Haiym in Israel.
    Thanks again
    Best Regards
    Michael Winik

  2. Heartbreaking… it reminds you just how important to prevent such horrors ever happening again. People can be so evil.

  3. These 2 quotes from the link above pretty much says everything about the real goals of Germany during WW2:

    Himmler gave vivid expression to this viewpoint in a meeting of SS major generals at Poznan, in October 1943.

    “What happens to a Russian, to a Czech does not interest me in the slightest. What the nations can offer in the way of good blood of our type, we will take, if necessary by kidnaping their children and raising them here with us. Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only so far as as we need them as slaves for our Kultur; otherwise, it is of no interest to me. Whether 10,000 Russian females fall down from exhaustion while digging an antitank ditch interests me only insofar as the antitank ditch for Germany is finished. We shall never be rough and heartless when it is not necessary, that is clear. We Germans who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude towards animals will also assume a decent attitude towards these human animals. But it is a crime against our own blood to worry about them and give them ideals, thus causing our sons and grandsons to have a more difficult time with them. When somebody comes to me and says, ‘I cannot dig the antitank ditch with women and children, it is inhuman, for it would kill them’, then I have to say, ‘You are a murderer of your own blood because, if the antitank ditch is not dug, German soldiers will die, and they are the sons of German mothers. They are our own blood. That is what I want to instill into this SS and what I believe have [sic] instilled into them as one of the most sacred laws of the future. Our concern, our duty is our people and our blood. It is for them that we must provide and plan, work and fight, nothing else. We can be indifferent to everything else. I wish the SS to adopt this attitude to the problem of all foreign non-Germanic peoples, especially Russians. All else is vain, fraud against our own nation and an obstacle to the early winning of the war.” (1919-PS *)

    Hans Frank, the Governor General of occupied Poland, addressed a cabinet session in the government building at Krakow on 16 December 1941 and advocated the following solution of the Jewish problem:

    “Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourself of all feeling of pity. We must annihilate the Jews, wherever we find them and wherever it is possible, in order to maintain there the structure of the Reich as a whole.”

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