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Operation Jubilee – the raid on Dieppe

Landing craft of No 4 Commando running in to land at Vasterival on the right flank of the main assault at Dieppe. The unit achieved its objective, the destruction of the ‘Hess’ Battery in a copybook action, the only success of the raid.

On the 19th August 1942 the British Combined Operations launched a cross channel raid on the French port of Dieppe. The main force of Canadian troops sought to capture the port facilities. It was allegedly an exercise in discovering how difficult such an operation would be, and a means of developing inter service co-operation for amphibious operations.

The raid is generally considered to have been an unmitigated disaster, with no major objectives accomplished and 4,384 of the 6,086 men who made it ashore killed, wounded, or captured, whilst the Royal Navy suffered 555 casualties.

For the men involved there was some desperate fighting, some indication of which can be gained from the citations of the three Victoria Crosses that were awarded for action that day:

Captain Patrick Anthony Porteous VC RA

At Dieppe on the 19th August 1942, Major Porteous was detailed to act as Liaison Officer between the two detachments whose task was to assault the heavy coast defence guns.

In the initial assault Major Porteous, working with the smaller of the two detachments, was shot at close range through the hand, the bullet passing through his palm and entering his upper arm. Undaunted, Major Porteous closed with his assailant, succeeded in disarming him and killed him with his own bayonet thereby saving the life of a British Sergeant on whom the German had turned his aim.

In the meantime the larger detachment was held up, and the officer leading this detachment was killed and the Troop Sergeant-Major fell seriously wounded. Almost immediately afterwards the only other officer of the detachment was also killed. Major Porteous, without hesitation and in the face of a withering fire, dashed across the open ground to take over the command of this detachment.

Rallying them, he led them in a charge which carried the German position at the point of the bayonet, and was severely wounded for the second time. Though shot through the thigh he continued to the final objective where he eventually collapsed from loss of blood after the last of the guns had been destroyed.

Major Porteous’s most gallant conduct, his brilliant leadership and tenacious devotion to a duty which was supplementary to the role originally assigned to him, was an inspiration to the whole detachment.

Charles Merritt VC

For matchless gallantry and inspiring leadership whilst commanding his battalion during the Dieppe raid on the 19th August 1942. From the point of landing his unit’s advance had to be made across a bridge in Pouville which was swept by very heavy machine-gun, motar and artillery fire, the first parties were mostly destroyed and the bridge thickly covered by their bodies. A daring lead was required: waving his helmet, Lieutenant Colonel Merritt rushed forward shouting “Come on over! There’s nothing to worry about here”. He thus personally led the survivors of at least four parties in turn across the bridge.

Quickly organizing these, he led them forward and when held up by enemy pillboxes he again headed rushes which succeeded in clearing them. In one case he himself destroyed the occupants of the post by throwing grenades into it. After several of his runner became casualties, he himself kept contact with his different positions.

Although twice wounded Lieutenant Colonel Merritt continued to direct the unit’s operations with great vigour and determination and while organizing the withdrawal he stalked a sniper with a Bren gun and silenced him. He then coolly gave orders for the departure and announced his intention to hold off and “get even with” the enemy. When last seen he was collecting Bren and Tommy guns and preparing a defensive position which successfully covered the withdrawal from the beach.

Lieutenant Colonel Merritt is now reported to be a Prisoner of War. To this Commanding Officer’s personal daring, the success of his unit’s operations and the safe re-embarkation of a large portion of it were chiefly due.

Captain John Foote, Canadian Chaplain Services, was Regimental Chaplain with the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry

Upon landing on the beach under heavy fire he attached himself to the Regimental Aid Post which had been set up in a slight depression on the beach, but which was only sufficient to give cover to men lying down. During the subsequent period of approximately eight hours, while the action continued, this officer not only assisted the Regimental Medical Officer in ministering to the wounded in the Regimental Aid Post, but time and again left this shelter to inject morphine, give first-aid and carry wounded personnel from the open beach to the Regimental Aid Post. On these occasions, with utter disregard for his personal safety, Honorary Captain Foote exposed himself to an inferno of fire and saved many lives by his gallant efforts.

During the action, as the tide went out, the Regimental Aid Post was moved to the shelter of a stranded landing craft. Honorary Captain Foote continued tirelessly and courageously to carry wounded men from the exposed beach to the cover of the landing craft. He also removed wounded from inside the landing craft when ammunition had been set on fire by enemy shells. When landing craft appeared he carried wounded from the Regimental Aid Post to the landing craft through heavy fire. On several occasions this officer had the opportunity to embark but returned to the beach as his chief concern was the care and evacuation of the wounded. He refused a final opportunity to leave the shore, choosing to suffer the fate of the men he had ministered to for over three years.

Honorary Captain Foote personally saved many lives by his efforts and his example inspired all around him. Those who observed him state that the calmness of this heroic officer as he walked about, collecting the wounded on the fire-swept beach will never be forgotten.

A general view of some of the small naval craft covering the landing during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe
A destroyer makes a smoke screen to cover the landing during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe.
HMS BERKELEY settling down in the water after being bombed during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe. One of the destroyers boats is still alongside, empty but still attached to its davits. BERKELEY was torpedoed shortly afterwards by British forces.
HMS BERKELEY being torpedoed by our own forces after being bombed during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe. Note how the plume of water caused by the explosion dwarfs the destroyer.
Wounded soldiers being helped on board the destroyer HMS ALBRIGHTON by the RNVR surgeon, Surgeon Lieutenant J Gask during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe.
A naval motor-launch seen with four of the landing craft personnel (large) used during the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe. The landing craft are numbered (left – right) LCP (L) 85, LCP (L) 41, number not visible and R 145.
Commandos returning to Newhaven in their landing craft (LCAs).
Stills from camera gun footage taken from a Supermarine Spitfire Mark V flown by Sergeant M Liskutin of No. 312 (Czechoslovak) Squadron RAF, as he shot down a Dornier Do 217 over the English Channel, while on patrol over a convoy of returning vessels from the Dieppe raid.
A wounded Canadian soldier being disembarked from the Polish Navy destroyer ORP at Portsmouth on return from Dieppe.
Some of the Canadian troops resting on board a destroyer after the Combined Operations daylight raid on Dieppe. The strain of the operation can be seen on their faces.
A German prisoner, Unteroffizier Leo Marsiniak, being escorted at Newhaven. He was captured at the gun battery at Varengeville by No. 4 Commando.

It was later claimed that for every man lost at Dieppe more lives were saved in the eventual invasion of Europe, at Normandy in 1944. As the German Field Marshal von Runstedt observed:

Just as we are going to evaluate these experiences for the future so is the assaulting force … perhaps even more so as it has gained the experience dearly. He will not do it like this a second time!

4 thoughts on “Operation Jubilee – the raid on Dieppe”

  1. Conflict, confusion and the need for more details still enter into discussions (often heated) about the Dieppe raid to this day. My father was one of about 100 Canadians in RCNVR who volunteered for Combined Operations (commanded by Mountbatten at the time) in late 1941, and trained to operate landing crafts in NW Scotland and southern England in early 1942 – first action unbeknownst to them was Dieppe raid, i.e., Operation Rutter, July 7 1942, then remounted and renamed Operation Jubilee, August 19, 1942. Rutter was cancelled ‘on the day of’ and my father believed to his death that Jubilee should have been cancelled too. He missed the raid due to one day’s leave, but lost mates for the first time that day. Survival guilt haunted him for 60 years. Many reports and books have been written and I am still collecting, reading, evaluating them. I am satisfied enough in my still-limited knowledge at the moment to say that “though much was learned that helped in future operations (How could it not! There was unnecessary death and pain there for us all), the raid should have been cancelled” – there was no secret to the Allied approach after a chance meeting of opposing forces in the Channel at 3:47 AM. And during the early morning, the main approach – to be under-pinned by secrecy – was clearly under-supported by Allied air and naval forces. Rare Canadian books and reports from men who were there inform us of the many sides of such a tragic event (e.g., “Combined Operations” by Clayton Marks, London Ontario, and others), an event that, in my opinion, was/is more infamous than militarily positive.

  2. I don’t think the narrator was ignorant or ill informed. I agree that the raid was a disaster on all levels. However this video clip was probably made shortly after the raid at Dieppe was concluded.

    At that time wartime security regulations would have prevented full details of the failed operation from being published. There are numerous reasons for this; civilian morale is one. The British had been fighting for almost three years. There had been a lot of defeats and bad news. Loss of confidence in the government is not something that would further the successful prosecution of the war.

    Look at official preliminary reports from the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. First reports were of one (or two) damaged battleships. Americans did not see pictures of dead American service people until about 1943 so as not to shock them.

    There were many reasons and objectives that led to the raid on Dieppe. To say that Mountbatten *insisted* on it is a stretch. There are also many reasons for its failure and to say that Mountbatten *has blood on his hands* is also a stretch. He has no more or less blood on his hands than thousands of other military and political leaders who sent soldiers and sailors off on ill conceived or planned missions throughout history.

  3. This narrator was either ignorant or ill informed. This raid was a disaster on all levels. My mother’s brother, a 19 year old Army Ranger, died at Dieppe, the first American soldier to lose his life on European soil. Count Louis Mountbatten had blood on his hands, as he insisted on this, obviously
    , poorly planned military maneuver. May all souls lost that day in infamy Rest In Peace. May the life of Lt. Edward Loustalot be remembered forever.

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