On the 22nd and 23rd February 1941 the Nazi’s launched the first mass round-up of Jews in Holland. This was in response to a brief period of organised resistance, when the residents in the Jodenhoek or Jewish Corner of Amsterdam fought back against harassment by the military wing of the Dutch Nazi Party, the ‘Weer Afdeling’ or WA.
A massive round up, the first of its kind in Holland, was held at the Jonas Daniël Meijerplein and the surrounding streets. 600 men of the Orpo [the German Order Police], armed with machine guns, humiliated Jews and beat them up. Eventually 389 men were arrested, transported to the police camp (Internierungslager) in Schoorl, 50 km north of Amsterdam, and a few days later were sent from there to KZ Buchenwald, where many of them died. After 4 months the survivors were deported from Buchenwald to KZ Mauthausen. There all but one of them died from torture and exhaustion.
Research published in 2021 has unearthed evidence that the Jews detained in Holland in February 1941 were killed in an experimental gas chamber in Hartheim Castle, the precursor to much larger facilities at Auschwitz and elsewhere. See BBC report on the research of Dr W. de Lang.
For much more on the Holocaust in Holland see The Persecution of Jews in Photographs.